Category Archives: Lecturer

Megajournals vs. Regular Journals: How to Choose Wisely


We cannot discuss megajournals without discussing open-access (OA) publishing. OA provides free access to published information with advantages such as no subscription fees, no paywall, and a wider audience. With the onset of OA, the megajournals, a category of OA journals, came into being. These are peer-reviewed journals; however, they might have less-stringent publishing criteria. Let us try to find out whether publishing in a megajournal is better or not.

What’s Best for You?

Whether to publish in a megajournal or a regular (traditional) journal is a personal choice. When making this decision, consider the following characteristics of megajournals:

  • Limited scope of peer review: In many cases, the scope of a peer review for a megajournal limits itself to the technical information presented. It might not assess whether the research is new or even important.
  • Broad range of subjects: Unlike traditional journals, megajournals accept and publish research articles from many disciplines. They do not specialize in a specific discipline or subject.
  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): APCs for publishing in megajournals are usually lower than those of traditional journals.
  • Turnaround time: They have quicker turnaround times between reviewers and researchers.

These are not necessarily negative characteristics. In fact, you might find them appealing because you might be able to publish sooner than expected. In addition, you will have a wider audience who will see your research, but be aware of some of the pitfalls. For example, PLOS ONE, touted as the first megajournal to be launched, has recently had some difficulties in keeping top management and in its declining impact factor.

Even so, several other journals have subscribed to this new model without experiencing any problems. Nature, Science, BMJ Open, Scientific Reports, and the Journal of the American Chemical Society, all highly reputed scientific journals, do not specialize in only one discipline.

Quick Check Before You Make the Choice

When considering publishing in a megajournal, keep in mind the following:

  • Check the publisher’s qualifications for any megajournal that you are considering. Some publishers overinflate their journal protocols to get your business or present themselves as “self-proclaimed” megajournals.
  • Check the profiles of the peer reviewers for the journal. Some peer reviewers hired by megajournals will review a variety of disciplines, some of which might not be in their field of study.
  • Assess the quality and reputation of the megajournal. Do your research on these publications. Make sure there are no previous issues involving internal affairs or articles published that suffered retraction later on. Some of the journals carry out such practice because the articles they published, contained falsified or fabricated data.

Where to Start

Your decision should be based on a concerted effort to review and assess the megajournals that you are considering. Even though you must always do your due diligence before submitting your research to a megajournal with which you might not be familiar, the experience can still be a positive one.

Recently, Enago Academy launched the Open Access Journal Finder (OAJF) that aims at enabling research scholars to find open access journals relevant to their manuscript. OAJF uses a validated journal index provided by Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) – the most trusted non-predatory open access journal directory in its search results. The tool displays vital journal details to the scholars including publisher details, peer review process, confidence index (indicates similarity between matching keywords in the published articles across all journals indexed by DOAJ), and publication speed.

Have you used a megajournal in your publishing endeavors? If so, please describe the peer review process, timing from submission to publication, quality of published research, and any other objective characteristics that you would like to pass on to our readers. Please let us know your thoughts in the comments section below.

Top 20 Tips for Presenting at International Conferences

Presenting at international conferences is an integral aspect of scientific communication. It helps enhance researcher’s career prospects. Attending good conferences can be the best way of learning about new developments in a research field. However, for early-stage researchers, identifying the right conference, addressing larger audiences, and explaining their study in an effective and time-bound manner, can sometimes be daunting tasks. Moreover, with the increase in the number of predatory conferences, researchers should look for warning signs to distinguish between a predatory and a legitimate conference.

If researchers utilize this opportunity well, they can open doors to effective networking and future collaborations. Check out the handy checklist below to make your presentation experience at international conferences worthwhile!

Click on the image below to download the checklist 

Top 10 Tips on Creating Images for Your Journal Manuscript

In the process of academic research, the data obtained by researchers can only mean something when it gets published. Scientific images or figures are very useful to convey the research findings in a concise and visual manner. The process of creating an image or figure for a manuscript is often a very time-consuming step; for younger researchers, this can be very daunting. Because every academic journal has its own requirements, researchers need to abide by the same and follow them exactly.

In this infographic, we present some handy tips for you to refer to while creating images for your journal manuscript.


How Paper Posters Evolved into Interactive Digital Presentations


Whether you love or dread them, conference presentations are a crucial part of any research-oriented career. Sharing and exchanging findings and information with others in your field is important. It helps to stay up to date on the latest developments, network with fellow professionals, and identify potential collaborators or new directions for your own research. Presentation methods continue to evolve as technology offers new ways to make research more exciting and accessible. Digital interactive poster presentations are the latest innovation sweeping the conference circuit.

From Paper to Digital

Visual accompaniment to presentations is a time-honored way to enhance or add depth to the research results being shown to an audience. In the past, students or young researchers who presented academic and scientific work created paper posters that featured the highlights of their work. With the advent of technology, e-posters began to grow in popularity in the 1990s. Also known as “digital posters”, these come in a variety of formats. Some may include stand-alone single elements such as a video, chart, photo, game, slideshow, while some may include a combination of several videos, charts, etc.

E-posters, as their name implies, are hosted online rather than in physical space. Their integration into conference poster sessions has highlighted the advantages of digital over traditional paper posters, including:

  • E-posters may be interactive and facilitate learning without the presenter nearby
  • These posters can present a great deal of information in a condensed format. Unlike paper posters, they don’t look crowded and messy
  • Addition of video, voice, slideshows, and photos provides a more interactive and enhanced experience for the audience
  • E-posters widen the audience as they are available online to anyone, not only to conference attendees
  • As they are available online, digital posters also facilitate discussions or “communities of interest” around the presented work
  • E-poster sessions mitigate the busyness of live poster sessions, allowing participants to learn more from sessions they attend

With these numerous factors in favor of digital posters, it’s no wonder that they have become the norm over the past decade in many academic disciplines.

From E- or Digital Posters to Digital Interactive Poster Presentations

During the 14th Meeting of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery in 2001, a new type of digital poster presentation was made, named digital interactive poster presentation. First proposed by De Simone et al. (2001), the digital interactive poster presentation, or DIPP, aimed to make poster sessions even more effective in communicating important data and discoveries by using an interactive format. The DIPP lets presenters project their posters on a screen or wall and give a brief, 3-5 minute presentation while highlighting important figures and charts. The popularity that the concept of DIPP had received at this very first session has grown ever since.

DIPPs are actually just soft copy or pdf versions of traditional posters that will be projected in the session followed. However, there are some advantages of DIPP over traditional posters. It allows the presenter to magnify or emphasize the portions of the presentation they find most interesting or relevant. It also provides opportunities for interaction between the presenters and audience in ways that traditional posters often do not. Traditional posters might end up in a trash can following a presentation. On the other hand, DIPPs can be preserved online, and later obtained in pen-drives if allowed.

Interactive Features of DIPPs

When a DIPP is created for viewing online or display on a screen or wall, the presenter can add different features to make it easier for the audience to interact more with the material and presentation. Hyperlinks and email addresses are one easy way to share contact information with interested audience members. For those of you who are more tech-savvy, you can include a QR code on your DIPP. That way, people who have a specific app installed on their smartphones or tablets can scan the QR code. It would direct them automatically to a website or receive contact information or text. Some people also include links that allow viewers to directly send their comments and feedback on the poster or presentation. With these new innovative presenting methods, scientific and scholarly community will be able to reach a much larger audience. This will, in turn, lead science and research to flourish.

Publisher Refrains from Charging Extra for Archived Papers

accessing archived research papers

The business of academic publishing is controversially inaccessible to its target audience; the academic community. Specifically, Elsevier and Taylor & Francis have been on the news regularly, due to disputes with universities in this regard. In recent disagreements, South Korean Universities cited the higher subscription rates that Elsevier charged. It also mentioned Elsevier’s misleading package deals of little-read journals. Meanwhile, librarians from UK/Irish institutions, and representatives of Research Libraries UK and beyond, urged Taylor & Francis to drop subscription charges. Overall, collaborative academic movements to improve accessibility to academic research journals could revolutionize the existing model of the publishing industry.

Flipping the Existing Business Model of Academic Publishing

 Elsevier’s business model, at $1000/year to access one journal title, alongside annual fee increase of 5%, faces rising academic resistance. A German consortium, Projekt DEAL, repeatedly attempted to negotiate better pricing with Elsevier, for improved open access. This spurred boycotts and similar negotiations across universities in Finland, Peru, and Taiwan. In a similar move, the Finnish library consortium also led the #NoDealNoReview boycott. As a cumulative result, a consortium of South Korean Universities, reached a new deal with Elsevier to access its database ScienceDirect.

Following on from the South Korean Universities, the Finnish Consortium (FinElib) similarly joined Elsevier to outline a three-year agreement. The agreement would provide Finnish academic organizations access to Elsevier’s extensive research collection. The agreement further allows Finnish researchers to publish their articles at a discounted rate in Elsevier’s journals. These articles have open access to the researchers. The agreement termed the Science Direct Freedom Collection, collectively allow Finnish Universities subscription access to ~1,850 journals on Elsevier’s ScienceDirect. Universities intend to seek more concessions, in similar negotiations, in the future. In addition, existing pirate open-access platforms such as Sci-Hub have also added pressure to change the traditional publishing model.

Publishers Reverse the Decision on Additional Charges for Archived Materials

Meanwhile, in the UK, academics have forced Taylor & Francis to retreat from increasing charges for accessing archived journals. This decision was in effect after more than 110 universities signed a letter of protest. The publishers initially intended to introduce a “moving paywall” that included a 20-year span of papers, in the “front file”. Essentially, these publications would move forward with time, causing additional costs to access these papers as a separate package. Head librarians of the UK and Irish institutions opposed the new policy, as it would increase administration activities alongside substantial costs. The letter of protest alluded the move would create confusion and annoyance while diminishing archival coverage considered ‘opportunistic’.

Improving Partnerships in Academic Publishing

In response to the backlash, Taylor & Francis issued a statement that the new policy would not be implemented. Historic access was reinstated as part of the main subscription, alongside an apology for concerns generated by the new policy. Following the statement, library directors greeted the development and appreciated easy access to scholarly publications for University students and staff. Negotiations between Irish Universities and their next deal with Taylor & Francis are ongoing. Increasingly, the academic institutions are challenging academic publishers to implement a more accessible publishing model, while diminishing excess costs. Perhaps revolutionary change can be progressively achieved to replace the traditional academic publishing model after all.

What is the Difference between a Lead Author and Co-author?


At first glance, the status of a “lead author” would seem to be fairly straightforward. If most of the work of a particular study is done by only one researcher then his name should come first in the citation. However, unless an agreement is reached among all authors defining what “the most work” means, misunderstandings will inevitably ensue and could lead to a conflict of interest. This situation can quickly deteriorate further to even academic misconduct if the list of authors doesn’t accurately reflect the extent of involvement for each author.

Definition of a “Lead Author” and “Co-Author”

The definition of a lead author and co-author are commonly considered as follows:

  1. Lead Author: He/She is also called as the first author and is the one who carries out the research as well as writes and edits the manuscript.
  2. Co-Author: He/She is the one who collaborates with the lead author and contributes to the work in the manuscript.

Assigning Authorship

One of the most significant issues in involving multiple authors in a research paper is the tendency to not be able to equally attribute each facet of the project to a specific researcher. For example, deference to seniority should not automatically equate to lead authorship status, but very often it does. The second assumption is that having a supervisor or senior author listed will improve both recognition and the chances of publication in a prestigious journal.

Related: Made a decision on the lead and co-author for your research paper? Check out this post for some orders and rules of authorship now!

At the other end, it is often assumed that junior researchers and staff members are grateful for the opportunity to be a part of the team and do not expect to be acknowledged as authors. As they often do much of the legwork for large projects, this assumption is highly disrespectful.

Establishing Boundaries

Operating on assumptions seriously undermines the importance of correct authorship status since such a designation carries with it academic, financial, and career implications. If the team has never worked together before and is committed to avoiding conflict over this issue, there are several good sources for general rules or codes of conduct that can be used to establish rules to which everyone can agree to comply. For example, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) identifies four criteria that should be met to “qualify” for authorship status:

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content
  • Final approval of the work to be published
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


Such rules may not help to resolve ego issues where individual team members expect recognition based on what they bring to the team, but by keeping the topic focused on workload and accountability; these rules carry the clear message that authorship is earned not granted.

Avoiding Conflict

No matter how many hierarchical ranks exist in your department, it is wise not to transfer the same bureaucratic headaches to your authorship team. There can be only one “lead author”, and the aim should be to recognize the remaining members as “co-authors” who agree, in advance, to what tasks they will each be responsible for. Any issues about the perceived fairness of such designations can then be addressed in advance rather than fighting over performance failure prior to publication.

Importance of Research Ethics

There are multiple reasons why it is necessary to adhere to the basic norms of scientific conduct during academic research. The credibility of the scientific community and the perception of the public to judge and accept new results strongly depends on the authenticity of the results that have been published. It is particularly important to have a clear distinction between acceptable and unacceptable conduct especially when human beings or animals are involved in a study. Given the competitive nature of research, it has become increasingly challenging for scientists to report unique and pioneering research. Nevertheless, the practice of misreporting data and scientific results continues to be followed by some members of the research community.

Reality of Research Ethics

The most striking example of how research misconduct can destroy the lives of people is the case of Paolo Macchiarini, a surgeon who became famous for a supposed medical breakthrough that promised to revolutionize organ transplantation. The Italian scientist used synthetic scaffolds seeded with the patients’ stem cells to create trachea transplants. However, it turned out that his experiments on humans had no sound preclinical research foundation. At least seven of the nine patients that received the treatment died.

Related: Interested in learning more about unethical publishing practices? Check out this infographic on predatory publishing now!

Several investigations showed that Macchiarini manipulated some of the data in his scientific publications and reports, omitting or even fabricating results to make his treatments appear more successful. There has also been severe criticism in regards to the decision-making around all the operations. In the meantime, the scandal has led to Macchiarini’s dismissal and the resignation of several authorities from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden (Macchiarini’s former employer). Various papers co-authored by the Italian surgeon have also earned expressions of concern, including two highly cited articles published in Nature Communications and The Lancet.

Dos and Don’ts of Research Ethics

Do’s Don’ts
Maintaining a good record of all your research activities and report your data as carefully and objectively as possible. Fabrication, manipulation or misrepresentation of data.
Disclose financial or personal interests that may directly/indirectly affect your work. Deceiving research sponsors, colleagues, or ethical committees by having bias in data interpretation, peer review, or personnel decisions.
Treat animals with care and respect when studying them in your research and adhere to ethical guidelines. Use any external research data (published or unpublished) without permission.
Respect intellectual property, privacy, and confidentiality and give proper credit for any contributions from other researchers. Support irresponsible publication practices. Your main goal should be to advance science and share your knowledge within the community.

Ethical Requirements

In general, analyzing non-adherence to ethical norms is extremely difficult, and in some cases, drawing a clear line between misconduct and misunderstanding is very difficult. Although researchers do recognize ethical norms, they are interpreted and applied in different ways at different institutes. Researchers usually are required to ensure conformance to ethical requirements during scientific research, including the proper design and implementation of studies that involve human or animal experiments, avoiding scientific misconduct (such as data fabrication or plagiarism), following environmental and safety regulations, adhering to norms related to authorship and intellectual property, and keeping confidentiality agreements.

Policies of Research Ethics

Ethics committees play an important role in defining the standards that need to be met for research ethics and ensuring that they are met. Some influential policies relating to research ethics include those introduced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the American Chemical Society, or the European Network of Research Ethics Committees. Other guidelines such as the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki have been fundamental in defining human research ethics.

Despite recent scandals, including the cases of Paolo Macchiarini, Scott Reuben or Olivier Voinnet, the awareness about research ethics seems to be increasing in the scientific community. Several resources covering the most important aspects in this area are available and many academic institutions are now introducing educational curriculums to help researchers resolve ethical dilemmas.

Importance of Ethics Committees in Scholarly Research

Ethics committees review research proposals involving human participants and their data to ensure that they agree with local and international ethical guidelines. They also monitor studies once they begin and—if necessary—may take part in follow-up actions after the end of the research. Their main responsibility is to protect the subjects involved in the study and also consider the possible risks to the community and the environment. Ethics committees have the authority to approve, reject, modify, or stop studies that do not conform to the accepted standards.

Role of Ethics Committees

Most journals do not publish any results unless they have been approved by an ethics committee and they may withdraw published articles that exhibit any ethical problems. Recently, a study published in the journal Disability and Society was retracted after the human research ethics committee at the University of Waikato in New Zealand expressed concerns over the publishing methods used in the study.

The paper described the case of a girl who was born with a brain injury and was treated with hormones to keep her small, making it easier for her parents to take care of her. The procedure—known as the Ashley treatment—is rather controversial but seems to be on the rise. Although the Disability and Society study only analyzed a particular case (without actually involving any clinical subjects), the report was apparently inaccurate. The girl’s family finally decided to file a complaint against it.

In a similar case, the European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery retracted another manuscript about a heart surgery technique after discovering that the researchers did not have ethics approval to perform the procedure on 130 patients. It turned out that the Iranian Cardiac Surgical Society had already asked the authors to stop using the method back in 2004, six years before the study was complete. In the retraction notice, the editor-in-chief also advised other surgeons to refrain from using this technique.

Greater Transparency in Ethics Committees

It is clear that poor regulation can cause severe harm to patients, as demonstrated in the case of Paolo Macchiarini, where a series of irregularities surrounding his recruitment and research activities at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm served as a platform for his unacceptable behavior. Thus, independent and reliable committees are essential to ensure high ethical standards in the scientific community.

In a study published recently in the British Medical Journal, a group of scientists have called for more transparency in the processes followed by the ethics committee. According to the researchers, any documentation related to the ethical approval of clinical trials should be freely available, allowing ethical decisions to be publicly reviewed and discussed. They believe that this could help researchers to minimize participant harms and maintain public trust.

Members of an Ethics Committee

Most research ethics committees include both individuals with scientific or medical expertise and non-scientists. The reason is that some risks, particularly those related to social, legal, or cultural considerations, may be more easily identified by non-scientific members, whereas the procedures and scientific validity of the study design must be evaluated by experts in the field. Ideally, gender balance and social diversity should also be reflected in the committee’s composition. Moreover, the membership should be designed in such a way as to minimize conflicts of interest in the decision-making process.

Good Team Work is Essential

There are several situations where researchers and ethics committees must work together. These include

  • Identifying and weighing up the risks and benefits of a study (considering human subjects, animals, the community, and the environment).
  • Recognizing any financial or personal interests that may affect the research.
  • Evaluating the recruitment process and any incentives that will be given to the participants.
  • Assessing the procedures and methods used to ask for participants’ informed consent.
  • Ensuring that all the research activities are recorded properly and reported in a responsible, honest, and objective way.
  • Guaranteeing fairness, confidentiality, and privacy for all the subjects involved in the study—or at least full transparency about data-sharing in cases where absolute confidentiality is not possible.

If the research also includes medical interventions, scientists and ethics committees must make sure that adequate care and treatment will be provided.

How to Cite the DOI of a Journal Article


DOI (digital object identifier) is an identification code for a journal article or other published works. The code was developed and introduced in 2000 by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) and is assigned by the publisher. A DOI is generated by a registration agency (Crossref) that contains an alphanumeric string beginning with “10” and a prefix of four or more numbers. The prefix is followed by a slash (/) and a suffix. The suffix is assigned by the publisher.

DOIs create unique uniform resource locators (URLs) that begin with For example, the DOI will take you to the article titled “Scott’s Editing: History, Polyphony, Authority” by Robert Mayer, published in the May 2015 issue of Modern Philology. DOIs are used as electronic links to an article’s location and helps identify an article’s subject matter. They should always be used in your printed or electronic articles or in any other published materials. DOIs are usually placed on the first page of a journal article.

Crossref recently changed the DOI format to make it more web-friendly and secure. There is only a slight difference between the old and new formats, but be sure to check the new format and incorporate it into your references.

Citations and References

Citation and reference are two different things. A citation is a note within the text in parentheses and a reference is the full expansion of that note (all the information necessary to find the referenced material). You can cite passages or quotations and provide a citation for that within the text.

An example of in-text citation would be (Johnson 2017) in parentheses, or it could be just a numeral in brackets or superscript. A reference list would then list all the citations in alphabetical or numeric order, depending on the author guidelines.

Note that some style guides prefer to use the word “bibliography” instead of “references.” Be aware that these two words actually mean the same thing.

The following is a list of some style guides and how they prefer to list DOIs in their references.

American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) style guide is used mainly in the social sciences. APA uses the “author-date” style for in-text citations (e.g., Johnson, 2017). Note the comma after the name and before the date.

When referencing the citations in the reference list, APA style is to include the DOI for all electronic media. The typical reference in APA style would use the following format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or

An example of a reference in APA style is as follows: (boldface type added for emphasis but not included in the reference):

Morey, C. C., Cong, Y., Zheng, Y., Price, M., & Morey, R. D. (2015). The color-sharing bonus: Roles of perceptual organization and attentive processes in visual working memory. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 3, 18–29.

Note the DOI is placed at the end of the reference.

American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA) style is a guide used by medical researchers and those who are part of the medical and scientific publishing industry. The DOI included at the end of a reference in AMA style is similar to that in APA style, except that AMA does not require the preceding “https://” notation. An example of AMA reference style is as follows:

Coppinger T, Jeanes YM, Hardwick J, Reeves S. Body mass, frequency of eating and breakfast consumption in 9-13- year-olds. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2012; 25(1): 43-49. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2011.01184.x

Modern Language Association

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is most commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities fields of study. MLA style is a bit different from APA or AMA in that its in-text citations include a page number (e.g., Johnson 15) instead of a date after the author name. If the author name is used within the text itself, only the page number is noted in the citation.

Although MLA does not require that a DOI or URL be used in a reference, it is a good idea to do so, especially when the journal or your professor prefers it. An example reference in MLA style is as follows:

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates.” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Note that in MLA style, the full names of the authors are listed, not just the last name and initials. The names are arranged by the first author’s last name first and subsequent authors’ first then last names. The title of the work is in quotation marks.


Many older published papers might not have a DOI. If your article has no DOI, you can use the words “retrieved from” in your reference with a link to the journal’s homepage on the Internet. Do not use the web page that hosted the specific article. An example of an APA reference in which there is no DOI is as follows:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from

As always, be sure to check author guidelines of your target journal for specific rules on citations and references.

How to Write a Successful Scientific Manuscript

Scientific Manuscript

Writing a scientific manuscript is an endeavor that challenges the best minds, yet it is very rewarding once the body of work comes to fruition. Researchers carefully draft manuscripts allowing them to share their original ideas and new discoveries with the scientific community as well as to the general population. A significant amount of time and effort is spent during the investigative stages conducting the required research before it is released into the public domain. Therefore, the manuscript drafted to present this research must be thorough, logically presented, and factual. Scientific manuscripts must adhere to a specific language and format to communicate the results to the scientific community whilst adhering to ethical guidelines. When completed the final written product will allow colleagues to debate and reflect on the newly minted work embedded in the manuscript.


Scientific manuscripts are organized in a logical format, which fits specific criteria as determined by the scientific community. This methodology has been standardized in journals which communicate information to those in the field being discussed. Since the researcher has a storyline he or she is trying to transmit, it must be clear and upfront on the exact question and or problem that his research answers. Readers of the manuscript will be energized to review this work when its content is spelled out early in the paper. A well-written manuscript has the following components included: a clear title, abstract, introductory paragraph, methods and materials section, discussion of results, conclusion and a list of references. Each component of a journal article should follow a logical sequence, which members of the science community have become accustomed.

Structural Contents

Title or Heading

Titles are extremely important. A crisp detailed title is the first element an audience notices when encountering your manuscript. The significance of a title cannot be overstated in that it introduces your reader to the subject matter you intend to discuss in the next thousand or more words. A poorly formatted title could dissuade a potential reader from delving into your manuscript further. In addition, your paper is indexed in a certain manner, which search engine algorithms will track. To rise to the top of the search index, keywords should be emphasized. Thinking of the right title could determine the size of your audience and the eventual success of your work.


Abstracts are abbreviated versions of your manuscript. Contained within the abstract’s structure should be the major premise of your research and the questions you seek to answer. Also included in the context of the abstract is a brief summary of the methods taken to achieve your goals along with a short version of the results. The abstract may be the only part of the paper read, therefore, it should be considered a concise version of your complete manuscript.


The Introduction amplifies certain aspects of the abstract. Within the body of the introduction, the rationale for the research is revealed. Background material is supplied indicating why the research performed is important along with the direction the research took. A brief summary (in a few sentences) discussing the technical aspects of the experimental approach utilized to reach the article’s stated conclusions is included here. Written well the introduction will influence readers to delve further into the body of the paper.

Methodology and Materials

In this section, the technical aspects of the research are described extensively. Clarity in this part of the manuscript is mandatory. Fellow researchers will glean from this section the methods and materials you utilized either to validate your work, reproduce it, and/or develop the concepts further. Detailed protocols are presented here, similar to a road map, explaining the experiments performed, agents or technologies used, and any biology involved. Statistical analysis and tests should be presented here. Do not approximate anything in this part of the manuscript. Suspicion may be cast in your direction questioning the validity of the research if too many approximations are detected.

Discussion of Results

This part of the manuscript may be considered its core. Elaboration on data generated, utilizing tables and graphs, communicating the essence of the research and the outcomes they generate. Once the results are given a lengthy discussion, it should follow by including the interpretation of data, implications of these findings, and potential future research to follow. Ambiguous findings and current controversies in this type of research should be analyzed and examined in this section.


This is the endpoint in the manuscript. Conclusions are written in a concise manner utilizing words not numbers. Information conveyed in this section should only be taken from the research performed. Do not place your references here. Full and complete interpretation of your findings in this part of the manuscript is imperative. Clarity of thought is also essential because misinterpretation of the results is always a possibility. Comparisons to similar work in your field may be discussed here. Absolutely avoid interpretation of your results that cannot be justified by the work performed.


Every journal has submission requirements. Journal guidelines should be followed for proper authentication of references. There exist several formats for reference creation. Familiarize yourself with them. In addition, the sequence of references listed should be in the order in which they appear in the research paper. A number, usually in parenthesis, follows the sentence where they are noted.

Production of a scientific manuscript is a necessity to introduce your research to a wide audience. The complexity of the research and the results generated must be written in a manner that is clear and concise, follows the current journal formats, and is verifiable. The guidelines embedded in this paper will help the researcher place his work in the best light possible. Never write anything that cannot be justified by the research performed. With these simple rules in mind, your scientific manuscript will be a success.

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